The VII International Symposium on Tardigrada

The congress was attended by 35 researchers from 8 countries from three continents (Asia, Europe and North America). During the three days of the meeting 21 talks and 11 posters were presented.

This was the first time a tardigrade conference was held in Germany.

Table of contents

Group photo


04-07 September 1997.


Düsseldorf, Germany.

World Map from Wikipedia.


Naturkundliches Heimatmuseum Schloss Bernath.


Professor Hartmut Greven (Heinrich Heine University).

Participants (alphabetically)

Abe, Wataru (Japan)
Altiero, Tiziana (Italy)

Bamberger, A. (Germany)
Beasley, Clark W. (USA)

Bertolani, Roberto (Italy)
Biserov, Vladimir I. (Russia)

Brenner, M. (Germany)

Budd, Graham (Sweden)

Dastych, Hieronymus (Germany)

Dewell, Ruth (USA)

Guidetti, Roberto (Italy)

Grassmann, Oliver (Germany)

Greven, Hartmut (Germany)

Heuwinkel, H. (Germany)

Ito, Masamichi (Japan)

Jorgensen, Alslak (Denmark)

Krantz, Stefanie L. (USA)

Kristensen, Reinhardt M. (Denmark)

Marley, Nigel (UK)

Martinez-Arbizu, P. (Germany)

McInnes, Sandra (UK)
Meller, P. (Germany)

Miller, W. Randy (USA)

Mobjerg, Nadja (Denmark)

Muller, Y. (Germany)

Nelson, Diane R. (USA)

Neuhaus, Birger (Denmark)

Pirch, J. (Germany)

Rebecchi, Lorena (Italy)

Schade, N. (Germany)

Schuster, R. (USA)

Stevens, N. (Germany)

Villora-Moreno, S. (Italy)

Wagele, Johnan-Wolfgang (Germany)

Wunstel, A. (Germany)



Group photo

Photo by O. Grassmann.



Thursday (04.09.1997)
15:00-19:00 Registration
19:30-... Informal get-together at the Hotel Restaurant "Zum Neuen Rathaus", Rathausstrasse 1.


Friday (05.09.1997)
09:00-09:20 Welcome
Tardigrade Phylogeny and Systematics (Chair: R.M. Kristensen)
09:20-09:50 Budd, G. Cambrian stem-group arthropods: Can they help us pin down tardigrade origins?
09:50-10:20 Dewel, W.C. & R.A. Dewel Phylogenetic implications of the morphology of the "suboesophageal ganglion" and ventral cord of Echiniscus sp.
10:20-10:50 Coffee and Tea
Tardigrade Phylogeny and Systematics (Chair: R.A. Dewel)
10:50-11:20 Nelson, D.R. & J. Garey Molecular analysis of eutardigrades and heterotardigrades
11:20-11:40 Eibye-Jacobsen, J. Are the placoid structures in the tardigrade pharynx homologous throughout the entire group?
11:40-12:00 Nelson, D.R. & G. Poinar A new fossil heterotardigrade from Dominican amber
12:00-12:20 Bertolani, R, Marley, N. & D.R. Nelson Some considerations on Thulinia (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae), with the redescription ofthe genus and of Thulinia augusti (Murray, 1907) comb.n.
12:20-14:00 Lunch
14:00-14:40 Wagele, J.W. Principles of phylogenetic systematics and sources of errors in molecular systematics (Invited lecture)
14:40-16:30 Round Table Discussion - Congruence ofmorphological and molecular data in Tardigrada? (Chairs: R.M. Kristensen, D. Nelson, J.W. Wagele)
16:30-19:00 Walk through the Dusseldorf's "Altstadt"
19:00-... Get-together in a "Biergarten" (depends on the weather) or a restaurant in the "Altstadt"


Saturday (06.09.1997)
Tardigrade anatomy and physiology (Chair: W.C. Dewel)
09:00-09:45 Kristensen, R.M. & B. Neuhaus The ultrastructure of the cuticle with special attention to marine tardigrades
09:45-10:15 Wiederhoft, H.& H. Greven Head sensory organs of Milnesium tardigradum
10:15-10:45 Coffee and Tea
Tardigrade anatomy and physiology (Chair: D. Nelson)
10:45-11:30 A. Jorgensen, A., Mobjerg, N. & R.M. Kristensen Ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis and postcopulatory modifications of spermatozoa of Actinarctus doryphorus Schulz, 1935 (Arthrotardigrada: Halechiniscidae).
11:30-11:50 Rebecchi, L., Guidi, A. & R. Bertolani Self-fertilisation in tardigrades
11:50-12:10 Krantz, S., Benoit, T., Beasley, C.W. & G. Wilson Bacteria associated with Milnesium tardigradum
12:10-12:30 Marley, N. Cuticular sculpturing in the Pseudechiniscus suillus-species complex
12:30-15:00 Lunch
15:00-18:00 Visit of the Lobbecke Museum + Aquazoo Dusseldorf and/or Schloss Benrath
19:00-... The Symposium Buffet to be held in the dome hall of the "Naturkundliches Heimatmuseum Benrath"


Sunday (07.09.1997)
Tardigrade distribution, ecology and taxonomy (Chair: C.W. Beasley)
09:00-09:20 Guidetti, R., Nelson, D.R. & R. Bertolani Tardigrades of the beech litter
09:20-09:40 Meier, T. Tardigrades on tree trunks
09:40-10:00 Miller, W.R. & R.M. Kristensen A new Antarctic species of Echiniscoides
10:00-10:20 Miller, W.R., Homing, D. & Heatwole, H. Tardigrades of the Australian Antarctic: Macquarie Island
10:20-10:50 Coffee and Tea
Tardigrade anatomy and physiology (Chair: D. Nelson)
10:50-11:10 Claxton, S. A new species of Milnesium from eastern Australia with some observations on Limmenius porcellus (Tardigrada, Milnesiidae)
11:10-11:30 Biserov, V. A review of Tardigrada from the Novaya Zemlya with description of two new species and evaluation of the state of environment in this region
11:30-11:50 Beasley, C.W. Tardigrada from northern Yunnan Province, P.C.R.
11:50-12:10 Biserov, V. Tardigrada of Turkmenistan with description of several new species
12:10-14:00 Lunch
14:00-... Coffee, tea and cakes, closing words
On request Free discussion, exchange and examination of slides etc



Abe, W. Depth distribution of soil inhabiting tardigrades
Biserova, N. & L. Rebecchi Ultrastructural aspects of the reproductive system in some eutardigrades
Ito, M. Ecological distribution and abundance of terrestrial tardigrades in various forests of Mt. Fuji, Central Japan
Marley, N. Redescription of the Milnesium claw type and the peribuccal structure of Milnesium tetralamellatum
Martinez-Arbizu, P. & S. Villora-Moreno New deep-sea Tardigrada (Halechiniscidae) from the South Atlantic
McInnes, SJ. & PJ.A. Pugh Zonation in Antarctic lake-dwelling tardigrades
McInnes, SJ. & PJ.A. Pugh Biogeography of limno-terrestrial Tardigrada, with emphasis on the Antarctic fauna
Miller, W.R. & J.D. Miller Giant tardigrades of the Sub-Antarctic
Pugh, PJ.A. & S. J. McInnes The origin of Arctic tardigrades
Rebecchi, L., Guidi, A. New data on the ultrastructure of eutardigrade spermatozoa
Villora-Moreno, S. New species of marine Tardigrada (Arthrotardigrada, Halechiniscidae) from South Shetland Islands (Antarctica)



The Symposium talks have been published in a special volume of 'Zoologischer Anzeiger'. The volume contains 22 scientific papers on tardigrade morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, evolution, biogeography, faunistics, ecology, physiology and reproduction. The symposium proceedings are dedicated to the memory of Dr. Vladimir I. Biserov.

Zoologischer Anzeiger
A Journal of Comparative Zoology)
vol. 238(3-4), 1999

Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Tardigrada

Hartmut Greven
(Guest Editor)







Greven, H. Preface. 133-134
Beasley, C.W. A New Species of Echiniscus (Tardigrada, Echiniscidae) from Northern Yunnan Province, China. 135-138
Bertolani, R., Marley, N.J. & Nelson, D.R. Re-description of the Genus Thulinia (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae) and of Thulinia augusti (Murray, 1907) comb. n. 139-145
Binda, M.G. & Pilato,G. Dactylobiotus lombardoi sp. n. (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae) from Tierra del Fuego, with a Key to the Dactylobiotus-species. 147-155
Biserov, V.I. Tardigrada of Turkmenistan, with Description of Three New Species. 157-167
Biserov, V.I. A Review of the Tardigrada from Novaya Zemlya, with Descriptions of Three New Species, and an Evaluation of the Environment in this Region. 169-182
Claxton, S.K. Milnesioides exsertum gen. n. sp. n., a New Tardigrade from Australia (Tardigrada: Milnesiidae). 183-190
Dewel, R.A., Budd, G.E., Castono, D.F. & Dewel, W.C. The Organization of the Subesophageal Nervous System in Tardigrades: Insights into the Evolution of the Arthropod Hypostome and Tritocerebrum. 191-203
Garey, J.R., Nelson, D.R., Mackey, L.Y. & Li, J. Tardigrade Phylogeny: Congruency of Morphological and Molecular Evidence. 205-210
Grongaard, A., Pugh, P.J.A. & McInnes, S.J. Tardigrades, and Other Cryoconite Biota, on the Greenland Ice Sheet. 211-214
Guidetti, R., Bertolani, R. & Nelson, D.R. Ecological and Faunistic Studies on Tardigrades in Leaf Litter of Beech Forests. 215-223
Ito, M. Ecological Distribution, Abundance and Habitat Preference of Terrestrial Tardigrades in Various Forests on the Northern Slope of Mt. Fuji, Central Japan. 225-234
Jorgensen, A., Mobjerg, N. & Kristensen, R.M. Ultrastructural Studies on Spermiogenesis and Postcopulatory Modifications of Spermatozoa of Actinarctus doryphorus Schulz, 1935 (Arthrotardigrada: Halechiniscidae). 235-257
Krantz, S.L., Benoit, T.G. & Beasley, C.W. Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Tardigrada. 259-260
Kristensen, R.M. & Neuhaus, B. The Ultrastructure of the Tardigrade Cuticle with Special Attention to Marine Species. 261-281
McInnes, S.J. & Pugh, P.J.A. Zonation in Antarctic Lake-Dwelling Benthic Meiofauna, with Emphasis on the Tardigrada. 283-288
Miller, W.R. & Kristensen, R.M. Tardigrades of the Australian Antarctic: A New Species of the Marine Genus Echiniscoides from Macquarie Island, Subantarctica. 289-294
Miller, W.R. & Miller, J.D. Giant Tardigrades of Terra Incognita. 295-302
Miller, W.R., Claxton, S.K. & Heatwole, H.F. Tardigrades of the Australian Antarctic Territories: Males in the Genus Echiniscus (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada). 303-309
Nelson, D.R., Marley, N.J. & Bertolani, R. Re-description of the Genus Pseudobiotus (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae) and of the New Type Species Pseudobiotus kathmanae sp. n. 311-317
Rebecchi, L. & Bertolani, R. Spermatozoon Morphology of Three Species of Hypsibiidae (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada) and Phylogenetic Evaluation. 319-328
Wagele, J.-W. Major Sources of Errors in Phylogenetic Systematics. 329-337
Wiederhoft, H. & Greven, H. Notes on Head Sensory Organs of Milnesium tardigradum Doyere, 1840 (Apochela, Eutardigrada). 338-346
Announcement: The 8th International Symposium on Tardigrada, Copenhagen, Denmark, 30 July - 5 August 2000. 347-348



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