The VI International Symposium on Tardigrada

The congress, held by the British Antarctic Survey, was attended by 45 researchers from 10 countries from four continents (from Asia, Europe, North America and Australia). During the three days of the conference 29 talks (in 5 thematic sessions) and 17 posters (in a single session) were presented.

This was the first and the only so far Symposium held in the UK. Also, this was the first ever tardigrade conference to have participants from Asia and Australia, and to have posters in addition to talks as a form of result presentation.

Apart from the official Symposium organiser, Sandra McInnes, her parents, Helen and Archie McInnes, need to be acknowledged for their input in the conference organisation.

Table of contents

Group photo


The Symposium logo, designed by Tony Sylvester (British Antarctic Survey), shows six individuals of Echiniscus macronyx.


22-26 August 1994.


Cambridge, England, United Kingdom.

World Map from Wikipedia.


Selwyn College, University of Cambridge.


Sandra McInnes (British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge).

Participants (alphabetically)

 Adkins, R.G. (USA)
 Assuncao, C.M. (Brazil)
 Beasley, C.W. (USA)
 Bertolani, R. (Italy)
 Biserov, V.I. (Russia)
 Biserova, N. (Russia)
 Catchpole, C. (UK)
 Claxton, S.K. (Australia)
 Dahl, C. (Denmark)
 Dastych, H. (Germany)
 Dewel, W.C. (USA)
 Dewel, R.A. (USA)
 Eibye-Jacobsen, J. (Denmark)
 Ellis-Evans, J.C. (UK)
 Furches, L. (USA)
 Grabowski, B. (Germany)
 Greaves, P. (UK)
 Greensdale, P. (UK)
 Greven, H. (Germany)
 Gross Hanning, J. (Australia)
 Grøngaard, A. (Denmark)
 Guidi, A. (Italy)
 Hale, G.T. (USA)
 Horning Jr., D.S. (Australia)
 Kathman, R.D. (USA)
 Kendall-Fite, K. (USA)
 Kinchin, I. (UK)
 Kristensen, R.M. (Denmark)
 Kristensen, N.M. (Denmark)
 Mackness, B. (Australia)
 Marley, N. (UK)
 Maucci, W. (Italy)
 McInnes, S.J. (UK)
 Meier, T. (Norway)
 Miller, W.R. (USA)
 Nelson, D.R. (USA)
 Noda, H. (Japan)
 Pugh, P.J.A. (UK)
 Rebecchi, L. (Italy)
 Robinson, K. (UK)
 Utsugi, K. (Japan)
 Villora-Moreno, S. (France)
 Walossek, D. (Germany)
 Ward, J. (UK)
 Wright, D.E. (UK)

Group photo

Photo by C. Gilbert (British Antarctic Survey).



Monday (22.08.1994) 
09:00-17:30 Registration
19:00 Reception buffet (Senior Common Room of the Selwyn College)


Tuesday (23.08.1994) 
Chair: R. Bertolani (Italy)
09:00-09:20 S.K. Claxton Sexual dimorphism amongst Australian Echiniscus (Tardigrada, Echiniscidae) species
09:20-09:40 R.A. Dewel & W.C. Dewel The brain of Echiniscus viridissimus (Heterotardigrada)
09:40-10:00 J. Eibye-Jacobsen Development, ultrastructure and function of the tardigrade pharynx
10:00-10:20 A. Guidi & L. Rebecchi Spermatozoon morphology is a character for Tardigrada systematics
10:20-10:40 Tea/Coffee
Chair: R.M. Kristensen (Denmark)
10:40-11:00 N.M. Kristensen & C. Dahl Studies on the morphology and ultrastructure of the malpighian tubules of Halobiotus crispae Kristensen, 1982
11:00-11:20 B.S. Mackness, J.
Gross & R. Walis.
Three-dimensional tomography of tardigrades using confocal laser microscopy
11:20-11:40 N.J. Marley & D.E. Wight The anatomy and histology of Amphibolus weglarskae Dastych (Eohypsibiidae, Parachela, Eutardigrada, Tardigrada)
11:40-12:00 H. Wiederhöft & H. Greven The cerebral ganglion of Milnesium tardigradum Doyère (Apochela, Tardigrada): three dimensional reconstruction and notes on its ultrastructure
12:00-12:10 Close of session
12:10-13:20 Lunch
Chair: W.C. Dewel (USA)
13:20-13:40 R.G. Adkins & D.R. Nelson An ecological survey of tardigrades from Greene Mountain, Tennessee
13:40-14:00 K.L. Kendall-Fite & D.R. Nelson Two new species of tardigrades from Short Mountain Tennessee
14:00-14:20 D.R. Nelson & G. Hale A preliminary report on the Tardigrada of the Inside Passage, Alaska
14:20-14:40 C.W. Beasley Tardigrades from southern Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China
14:40-15:00 V.I. Biserov Tardigrades of the Taimyr Peninsula
15:00-15:20 Tea/Coffee
15:20-15:40 H. Dastych A survey of the Himalayan tardigrades
15:40-16:00 A. Grøngaard Tardigrades from the Greenland ice sheet
16:00-16:10 Close of session
17:00-19:00 Walking tour of Cambridge and Punting along the Backs
19:30 Supper (Great Hall of the Selwyn College)


Wednesday (24.08.1994) 
Chair: I. Kinchin (UK)
09:00-09:20 R. Bertolani & L. Rebecchi Multihabitat study on high altitude tardigrades from a northern Apennines valley (Italy)
09:20-09:40 B. Grabowski Ecological investigations on moss-dwelling tardigrades (Tardigrada) from Hesse (Germany)
09:40-10:00 B.S. Mackness A quantitative study of tardigrades in an elevated moss community. I. Spatial distribution and densities.
10:00-10:20 G.E. Kraft Biological aspects of Pseudobiotus megalonyx (Thulin, 1928) (Tardigrada. Eutardigrada) and other freshwater intertidal tardigrades of the Elbe River, after an oil spill
10:20-10:40 Tea/Coffee
Chair: D.R. Nelson (USA)
10:40-11:00 S. Garagna, L. Rebecchi & A. Guidi Genome size variations in Tardigrada
11:00-11:20 R.M. Kristensen The phylogenetic position of the Tardigrada
11:20-11:40 D. Walossek, K.J. Milller & R.M. Kristensen. A more than half a billion year old stem-group tardigrade from Siberia
11:40-12:00 S.K. Claxton Ten new species of Minibiotus (Tardigrada, Macrobiotidae) from Australia: Is Minibiotus
Plate, 1889, cosmopolitan?
12:00-12:20 R.M. Kristensen & B.S. Mackness A review of the marine tardigrades of Australia, with description of two new species from the Coral Sea
12:20-12:30 Close of session
12:30-14:00 Lunch
14:00-17:00 Visit to British Antarctic Survey/Free time


Thursday (25.08.1994) 
Chair: C.W. Beasley (USA)
09:00-09:20 N.J. Marley & D.E. Wight Some notes on the Arctic Tardigrada of Canada and Alaska, including a new addition to the North American fauna
09:20-09:40 W. Maucci Some data on Tardigrada of Arctic and Sub-Arctic tundra
09:40-10:00 W.R. Miller, J.D. Miller & H.F. Heatwole Tardigrades of the Australian Antarctic territories: Casey Base, East Antarctica
10:00-10:20 S. Villora-Moreno & S. de Zio Grimaldi New records on marine Tardigrada in the Mediterranean Sea
10:20-10:40 D.R. Nelson & K.L. McGlothlin Two new species of tardigrades from Roan Mountain, Tennessee-North Carolina
10:40-11:00 Tea/Coffee
11:00-12:20 POSTER SESSION
12:20-12:30 Close of session
12:30-13:40 Lunch
13:40-15:20 Workshop "Methods & Techniques" lead by P.M. Greaves
15:20-15:40 Tea/Coffee
15:40-17:20 Workshop "Phylogeny of Tardigrada" lead by R.M. Kristensen & R.A. Dewel
17:20-17:30 Close of session
19:30-20:00 Sherry in Selwyn College Gardens (weather permitting)
20:00 The Symposium Dinner (Senior Common Room of the Selwyn College)


Friday (26.08.1994) 
09:00-10:30 Confocal presentations




C.M.L. Assuncao & M.L. Christoffersen Phylogenetic analysis of the Tardigrada
R. Bertolani, L. Rebecchi &
S. Claxton
Phylogenetic significance of egg variation in tardigrades. .
S.Y. Moon Phylogenetic position of the Tardigrada based on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences


N.M. Biserova On the fine structure of Richtersius coronifer (Richters, 1903).
I.M. Kinchin Morphometric analysis of Ramazzottius varieornatus (Hypsibiidae, Eutardigrada)
N.J. Marley & P.M. Russell Visualisation of the surface sculpturing of the tardigrade, Pseudechiniscus suillus (Ehrenberg), explored
with enhanced light microscopy techniques
S.J. McInnes, P.J.A.
Pugh & K. Robinson
Diversity of egg surface morphology in the family Macrobiotidae (Tardigrada)
S.J. McInnes, P.J.A.
Pugh & K. Robinson
The effects of relative humidity on eggs of Dactylobiotus ambiguus (Macrobiotidae: Tardigrada) from freshwater lakes in Maritime Antarctic
G. Pilato The theory of the mesoderm secondary layer and the enterocoely in the tardigrades


S. Villora-Morcno & M. Garcia-Carrascosa Environmental heterogenity and the biodiversity of marine Tardigrada


P.M. Greaves James Murray and his work on tardigrades
B.S. Mackness A bibliography of the Tardigrada
B.S. Mackness A biography of tardigrade workers
N.J. Marley & D.E. Wight The Eutardigrade symphoriant, Pyxidium tardigradum Van der Land, its European distribution and host specificity
T. Meier A preliminary report of Tardigrada from Norway
H. Noda Two Renaudarctids (Arthrotardigrada) from Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.
K. Utsugi Distribution or Heterotardigrades in Japan



The Symposium talks have been published in a special volume of the 'Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society'. The volume contains 18 scientific papers on tardigrade morphology, anatomy, taxonomy, phylogeny, faunistics, biogeography, ecology, life histories and cytology. The symposium proceedings are dedicated to the memory and work of Professor Walter Maucci.

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
vol. 116(1-2), 1996

Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tardigrada

S. McInnes
(Guest Editor)




(click paper titles to open full texts in PDF)



McInnes, S.J. Foreword. 1
Bertolani, R. & Rebecchi, L. The tardigrades of Emilia (Italy). II. Monte Rondinaio. A multihabitat study on a high altitude valley of the northern Apennines. 3-12
Claxton, S.K. Sexual dimorphism in Australian Echiniscus (Tardigrada, Echiniscidae) with descriptions of three new species. 13-34
Dewel, R.A. & Dewel, W.C. The brain of Echiniscus viridissimus Peterfi, 1956 (Heterotardigrada): a key to understanding the phylogenetic position of tardigrades and the evolution of the arthropod head. 35-49
Kinchin, I.M. Morphometric analysis of Ramazzottius varieornatus (Hypsibiidae: Eutardigrada). 51-60
Moon, S.Y. & Kim, W. Phylogenetic position of the Tardigrada based on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. 61-69
Wiederhoft, H. & Greven, H. The cerebral ganglia of Milnesium tardigradum Doyere (Apochela, Tardigrada): Three dimensional reconstruction and notes on their ultrastructure. 71-84
Mobjerg, N. & Dahl, C. Studies on the morphology and ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubules of Halobiotus crispae Kristensen, 1982 (Eutardigrada). 85-99
Guidi, A & Rebecchi, L. Spermatozoan morphology as a character for tardigrade systematics: comparison with sclerified parts of animals and eggs in eutardigrades. 101-113
Garagna, S., Rebecchi, L. & Guidi, A. Genome size variation in Tardigrada. 115-121
Eibye-Jacobsen, J. On the nature of pharyngeal muscle cells in the Tardigrada. 123-138
Bertolani, R. Rebecchi, L. & Claxton, S.K. Phylogenetic significance of egg shell variation in tardigrades. 139-148
Villora-Moreno, S. & de Zio Grimaldi, S. New records of marine Tardigrada in the Mediterranean Sea. 149-166
Nelson, D.R. & McGlothlin, K.L. A new species of Calohypsibius (Phylum Tardigrada, Eutardigrada) from Roan Mountain, Tennessee-North Carolina, U.S.A. 167-174
Miller, W.R., Miller, J.D. & Heatwole, H. Tardigrades of the Australian Antarctic Territories: the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. 175-184
Maucci, W. Tardigrada of the Arctic tundra with descriptions of two new species. 185-204
Kendall-Fite, K. & Nelson, D.R. Two new species of tardigrades from Short Mountain, Tennessee, U.S.A. 205-214
Biserov, V.I. Tardigrades of the Taimyr peninsula with descriptions of two new species. 215-237
Beasley, C.W. & Cleveland, A. Tardigrada from southern Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. 239-243



Click here to download the booklet with the programme, abstracts and other Symposium info.

Additionally you can read the first circular with the registration form (you'll see that originally the Symposium was supposed to incorporate presentations on Gastrotricha) and the second flyer that contained the list of participants and the initial conference programme.


By Archie McInnes.

If you have more photos from the Symposium and you would like to share them with others, please send them to us and we will put them on the website.










Copyright by £ukasz Michalczyk (2004-2018)